THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE IN 1848 FREE THE NATION ?

The rise of nationalism in Europe initiated with the Spring of Nations in 1848. According to Leon- Baradat, nationalism calls on people to identify with the interests of their national group and to support the creation of a state – a nation-state – to support those interests. Nationalism was the ideological impetus that, in a few decades, transformed Europe. Rule by monarchies and foreign control of territory was replaced by self-determination and newly formed national governments.

NATIONALISM

  • It is a way of felling of people of the European people that the multinational dynastic empires of Europe will emerge as one nation-state( an independent country having same culture and language)

THE  FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE IDEA OF NATION

*   During 18th century, The French revolution  (1789) make a easy way for modern nation-state. French Revolution stand against the old monarchical oders and develop the feeling of popular nationalism.

The French revolutioneries introduced new ideas like:

● They introduce various practices like la patrie ( the fatherland) and le citoyen ( the citizen) among French people.
● A new flag introduced among the French people.
● A centralized administrative system with uniform law was introduced for all citizens.
● In Paris French was accepted as a common language.

These all steps make a being of collectiveness among people and demand for nation-state.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE MAKE MANY CHANGES TO THE NATION.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE
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NAPOLEON BONAPARTE  CODE (CIVIL CODE  1804)

Napoleon destroyed democracy in France. But make  very important law’s like:

☆ The code removed all privileges based on the birth, established equality before the law.
☆ Right to property.
☆Make a simplified, administrative system.
☆ Abolished the feudal system and freed the peasants from SERFDOM duties.
☆ Guild system was removed and transportation and communication system was improved.
☆ Standard weight and units was defined and make a one currency for all country.

*** The Rise of nationalism make people live for them ..

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THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE MAKE MANY CHANGES TO THE NATION.

THE MAKING OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE

Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons, in mid 18th century rulers have there independent territories. They do not share a collective identity or a common culture which led to rise in nationalism in Europe . These are:
▪ The rise of new middle class.
▪ The spread of ideology of
liberalism.
▪ The new spirit of conservatism.
▪ Treaty of Vienna.
▪ The rise of revolutionary.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE
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THE ARISTOCRACY  AND THE NEW MIDDLE  CLASS

Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class in the continent. They owned estates and property beith in countryside and town house. In Western and Central part of Europe, there was  emergence of commercial classes whose existence was frontiers, while Austria was the control of Northern based on production for the market. Due to Italy industrialisation, the new social groups – working class,  Businessmen, professionals came into being. Or was among the educated, liberal middle classes, the idea of national unity gained popularity.

TREATY OF  VIENNA

◇The Bourbon dynasty which had been deposed during the French revolution was restored to power.

◇France  lost its territory  that had annexed (rule the region by force)  under Napoleon

◇The boards  of states were set up on the boundaries  to prevent its further expansion in future

◇Prussia was given important new territones on its Western side while Austrta was given  control of Northern Iraly.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE
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◇German confederation of 39 states that had been set up by Napoleon was left untouched.

◇In the East, Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia  given a portion  of Saxony.

The main point of the congress was to restore the power of monarch that have been overthrown by Napoleon and create new conservatism in Europe. But liberalism opposed the monarchical form and believe that nation-state is important for France.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE MAKE MANY CHANGES TO THE NATION.

THE  AGE OF REVOLUTIONS :1830-  1848 

The first upheaval took place in france in July 1830
The July Revolution started in Brussels, which led to Belgium breaking away from the united kingdom of the Netherlands. This is also known as Greek War Of Independent started in 1821 and in 1832 Greek is recognized as independent nation.

HUNGER  HARDSHIP AND POPULAR REVOLT

The 1380s  were the year of economic hardship in Europe. In 19th century the population of Europe increases rapidly. Large population from rural areas migrated to cities to live in overcrowded slums.

In 1845, weavers of silesia  village have led to revolt against contractors who supplied them raw material and give them orders for finished textiles but they give them very low wages.

On 4th June at 2 pm, a large group of weavers marched in pairs against the contractor demand for high wages. But they were depressed with the help of army.

In 1848, food shortage and widespread unemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads. Louis Philippe the famous nationalist was forced to flee.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE
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THE MAKING OF GERMAN AND ITALY

UNIFICATION OF GERMANY

1815: German Confederation former by 39 German states.

1848: Berlin rioters gained liberal constitution for the kingdom.

1861: Wilhelm 1 succeeded to the throne.

1862: minister Otto Von Bismarck was chosen to be the Prime minister.

1864: Prussia and Austria allied and fought Denmark to win border provinces.

1866: Austria declared war called seven week’s war.

1867: Remaining states joined the North German Confederation.

1870: Prussia won the Franco-Prussia War.

THEN UNIFICATION OF GERMANY.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE
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UNIFICATION OF ITALY

Announcement of united Italy. In 1860, the army marched into south Italy and the kingdom of the Two Sicilies and Succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel 2 was proclaimed king of united Italy. In 1860 the entire central Italian states were united with Piedmount.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE MAKE MANY CHANGES TO THE NATION.

THEN UNIFICATION OF ITALY

VISUALISING THE NATION

Artists in the 18th and 19th century  found away out by personifying nation. Nations were then proposed as female figures. The female figures became an Allegory of the nation. In France, the female allegory was christened Marianne and Germania became the allegory of the German  Nation.  

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